Egyptian Dynasties

A Timeline of Egyptian Pharaohs and Dynasties

With over three thousand years of history, Egypt boasts a vast array of kings and dynasties. While we have previously covered the different eras of this civilization, we have compiled a dedicated table that outlines the chronology of the Egyptian pharaohs. This timeline serves as a useful reference guide when exploring cities or monuments. While our knowledgeable guides can provide context and anecdotes, having a structured timeline like this can help you organize dates and other pieces of information you encounter during your travels. We recommend keeping this resource close at hand to quickly clear up any doubts or questions that may arise during your trip.

Table of contents

Basic Outline of Periods and Dynasties

This is the basic outline of the periods in which Ancient Egypt is divided, which we will expand on below:

  • Predynastic Period (before approximately 3100 BC)
    • Dynasty 0
  • Archaic Period (circa 3100-2686 BC)
    • Dynasty I
    • Dynasty II
  • Old Kingdom (circa 2686-circa 2160 BC)
    • Dynasty III
    • Dynasty IV
    • Dynasty V
    • Dynasty VI
  • First Intermediate Period (circa 2160-circa 2055 BC)
    • Dynasty VII
    • Dynasty VIII
    • Dynasty IX
    • Dynasty X
    • Dynasty XI (first kings)
  • Middle Kingdom (circa 2050-circa 1750 BC)
    • Dynasty XI (later kings)
    • Dynasty XII
  • Second Intermediate Period (circa 1750-circa 1550 BC)
    • Dynasty XIII
    • Dynasty XIV
    • Dynasty XV
    • Dynasty XVI
    • Dynasty XVII
  • New Kingdom (circa 1550-1069 BC)
    • Dynasty XVIII
    • Dynasty XIX
    • Dynasty XX
  • Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 BC)
    • Dynasty XXI
    • Dynasty XXII
    • Dynasty XXIII
    • Dynasty XXIV
    • Dynasty XXV
  • Late Period (747-332 BC)
    • Dynasty XXVI
    • Dynasty XXVII
    • Dynasty XXVIII
    • Dynasty XXIX
    • Dynasty XXX
    • Dynasty XXXI
  • Hellenistic or Ptolemaic Period (332-30 BC)
    • Ptolemaic or Lagid Dynasty


It is important to acknowledge that there is not always a consensus among experts regarding the chronology and dates of the Egyptian pharaohs, particularly in the early dynasties of Egypt, due to a lack of reliable and precise documentation. Furthermore, there is not complete precision in terms of names, so the following list of monarchs includes the different variants that have been used throughout history.

Despite this, there are several documentary sources that are given greater consideration, including the list compiled by Manetho, a priest of Heliopolis, in the 3rd century BC, the royal list of the temple of Seti I in Abydos, the Palermo Stone, the Saqqara Royal List, and the fragments of the Turin Egyptian Museum papyrus, also known as the Turin Canon.

The Predynastic Period (prior to around 3100 BC)

This is the time when Ancient Egypt was formed, with reigns and periods that are challenging to date, often blending history with mythology.

  • Dynasty 0: This group consists of many kings of Upper and Lower Egypt when they were distinct regions. There is minimal documentation about them, or only allusions in royal lists. Sometimes, even their existence is uncertain, and the order of their reigns is unclear. Cities started to emerge during this period, and only a few pieces of pottery remain, some of which refer to these kings. Despite not being recognized as such, they are a direct precursor and included in the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs. Below are some examples:
    • In Lower Egypt:
      • Seka: The only known reference to him is his name written in hieroglyphics on the Palermo Stone.
      • Jaau: He is only known from the Palermo Stone.
      • Tyesh: The only mention of this hypothetical king is found on the Palermo Stone.
      • Uadynar: There is no other record of this king other than the mention on the Palermo Stone.
      • Tiu: No additional information about this king exists except for the mention on the Palermo Stone.
      • Mejet: There is no evidence of his existence, and the only information available is his name written on the Palermo Stone.
      • Double Falcon: His name is derived from the signs that would compose his hieroglyph. The only information we have about him is that his serekhs (symbolic representation of the king) have been discovered scattered throughout the eastern region of the Nile Delta and the Sinai Peninsula, suggesting that he may have had some influence in that area.
    • In Upper Egypt: these monarchs are considered authentic predecessors of the first dynasty of Egypt, as unification actually meant the superiority of Upper Egypt over Lower Egypt.
      • Horus Scorpion I (also known as King Scorpion I or Hor Serq): His name is derived from the hieroglyphic signs found in his tomb at Umm el-Qaab in Abydos. Despite being a popular figure in Hollywood movies, most of the details surrounding his life are fictional. There is a consensus that he is a distinct king from Horus Scorpion II.
      • Ny-Hor: His name means ‘the hunter’. He may have been a governor of the Hierakonpolis region, but there is controversy regarding his status as a king, as his serekh did not include any falcon. This may indicate that he ruled before the tradition of using the falcon as a reference to Horus, the god of royalty.
      • Horus Hat: There are only two inscriptions on ceramics that make reference to this king, making his reign difficult to trace.
      • Horus Iry: Likely an ancestor of Horus Ka or even Narmer, he may have ruled over a vast territory that included Abydos and Abusir from Hierakonpolis. He was buried at Umm el-Qaab (Abydos).
      • Ka (or Horus Ka): It has been speculated that he could be the father of Narmer, as his tomb is very similar in style and size, and located only 30 meters away. His serekhs have been found scattered throughout various points of Lower Egypt and the Fayum, which suggests that he may have formed a temporary coalition of territories.
      • Horus Cocodrilo: He could have been one of the governors of Nejen (Hierakonpolis) in this period. His chronological order is not clear, as neither his predecessor nor his successor are known.
      • Horus Scorpion II (or King Scorpion II): His name derives from the two hieroglyphs of his name. He could be the father of Narmer, considered the first pharaoh of the unified Egypt dynasties. His burial could have been in Umm el-Qaab (Abydos).

Archaic Period (c. 3100-2686 BC)

This period is also known as the Thinite Period, named after Thinis, which was the initial capital of this united kingdom and the place of origin of the ruling monarchs.

  • Dynasty I (until 2828 BC):  This dynasty is considered the first among the dynasties of Egypt as its kings were the creators of the unification and subsequent consolidation of the kingdom under a single crown. They established the first common territorial organization based on nomes. The dynastic necropolis was located in Umm el-Qaab, Abydos.
    • Narmer: Often associated with Menes and shrouded in a certain mystique, Narmer is regarded as the founder of the first dynasty of Egypt for unifying Upper and Lower Egypt. This interpretation is mainly based on the images of the Narmer Palette, a slate plate on which this monarch is seen wearing the crowns of both kingdoms. It is interpreted that the unification was based on the subordination of Lower Egypt to the power of Upper Egypt. Another of his great achievements would be the founding of the city of Memphis. He was buried in Umm el-Qaab, Abydos, near the tomb of Horus Ka, which may give clues to their kinship.
    • Aha (or Atotis, Ateti, or It): His name means “the fighter,” and he may have been at war with the neighboring Libyans and Nubians. He is sometimes identified as Menes, making him Narmer’s son and the second pharaoh of this chronology. He consolidated the unification of the country, achieved by his father. During his reign, one of the oldest mastabas was built in the North Saqqara necropolis. However, he was buried in the necropolis of Umm el-Qaab, Abydos.
    • Djer (or Teti or Iteti): With a long reign lasting more than 40 years, he was buried in the necropolis of Umm el-Qaab, Abydos, just like his father Aha and his grandfather Narmer. His tomb, which included the remains of over 300 servants, was later revered as the tomb of the god Osiris himself.
    • Djet (or Uadyi or Unefes): His name would mean “snake.” Protector of the arts, he carried out expeditions outside the country. It is not clear if he was Djer’s son or had to marry his daughter Merneith to occupy this place in the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs. He was buried in the necropolis of Umm el-Qaab in Abydos.
    • Den (or Udimu or Usafais): After a regency by his mother Merneith, he reigned for between 20 and 45 years. He undertook military campaigns in Sinai and developed numerous religious rites. He was buried in the necropolis of Umm el-Qaab in Abydos, in a rich tomb made of red granite.
    • Adyib (or Anedyib or Miebidos or Mergeregpen or Merbiap): Although he ascended to the throne as an old man, his reign was short and plagued by popular uprisings in Lower Egypt. His serejs, which served as a symbol of his power, appear erased, indicating a possible conflict with his successor, Semerjet. Adyib’s tomb in the Umm el-Qaab necropolis in Abidos was one of the simplest, likely due to the brevity of his reign.
    • Semerjet (or Semempses or Mempses or Semsu or Semsem): Considered a possible usurper due to his erasure of Adyib’s name from the Saqqara Royal List, Semerjet also faced the same fate from his own successor, Qaa. Despite this, he enjoyed a lavish burial in the royal necropolis of Umm el-Qaab in Abidos, indicating a strengthening of royal power.
    • Qaa (or Bienekes or Ubientes or Vibentis or Qebeh or Qebehu): The last pharaoh of the first dynasty, Qaa ruled for nearly half a century and sought to consolidate royal power, evidenced by his erasure of Semerjet’s name from the monuments. He was buried in the Umm el-Qaab necropolis in Abidos and was also the first to construct a funerary temple in Saqqara, a practice that would continue in later dynasties.


  • Dynasty II (2828-2682 BC): the second dynasty of Egypt showed no clear break from the previous lineage, with a focus on pacifying the territory after years of social instability and conflict between Upper and Lower Egypt. Though conflicts with the Nubians persisted, the monarchs attempted to strengthen their power, with Memphis emerging as the capital and the dynastic burial place shifting to Saqqara, signaling a shift towards Lower Egypt as the center of the monarchy’s power.
    • Hotepsejemuy (also known as Boetos, Bocos, or Bau): This pharaoh’s name implies that the transition of power was not peaceful, and that he may have had to fight for his position as ruler. He was buried in Saqqara.
    • Nebre (or Raneb or Kaiekos): During his reign, Nebre promoted the worship of the bull Apis, and his reign may have lasted between 10 and 30 years. The location of his tomb is uncertain, but it is believed to be under the pyramid of Unis in Saqqara, likely close to his predecessor Hotepsejemuy.
    • Ninecher (or Binotris or Biofis): Little is known about Ninecher’s reign, and the location of his tomb is uncertain, although it is likely in Saqqara.
    • Uneg (or Uadynas or Tlas): Very few mentions of this pharaoh have been found in archaeological sites, and it is not clear whether he was the successor of Ninecher. Some experts identify him as Sejemeb. The location of his burial place is also unknown.
    • Sendyi (or Senedi or Sened): While the location of Sendyi’s tomb has not been found, some scholars theorize that it may be located in Saqqara. After his reign, there may have been a brief period of territorial disintegration, or he may have only ruled over certain regions (such as Lower Egypt) after a possible division during Ninecher’s reign. However, all of these rulers belong to the same dynasty, and it cannot be considered as two separate dynasties. Additionally, four co-rulers are added to this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, who reigned over different regions:
    • Neferkara (or Seneferka or Aka): ruled in Lower Egypt
    • Neferkasokar: ruled in the Nile Delta
    • Hudyefa: ruled in the Nile Delta
    • Sejemeb (or Horus Peribsen): ruled in Upper Egypt. Some scholars believe Sejemeb and Peribsen to be two distinct rulers.
    • Jasejemuy (or Jasejem, also known as Khasekhemwy, Dyadyay or Beby): he is believed to have reunited Egypt once again. He shifted the capital to Hierakonpolis (Nejen), reestablishing the prominence of this city. Unlike his predecessors, Jasejemuy was interred in the royal necropolis of Umm el-Qaab, in Abydos, in a more luxurious and elaborate tomb made of stone. He also constructed two large fortresses in Abydos and Nejen (Hierakonpolis), the remains of which can still be seen 4,700 years later. Jasejemuy was also a pioneer in funerary art, being the first pharaoh known to have portrait-like sculptures.

Old Kingdom (c. 2686-c. 2160 BC)

The Old Kingdom is a period in Egyptian history that includes four dynasties. It is commonly referred to as the Period of the Pyramids, as the most notable aspect of this era was the construction of these magnificent funerary structures.

  • Dynasty III (c. 2686-c. 2600): these pharaohs were renowned for their expansionist policies, which led to the colonization of Lower Nubia and the Sinai Peninsula. They made Memphis their permanent capital. However, little is known about most of the monarchs in this dynasty, and even the order of succession is disputed, except for King Djoser who is well documented.
    • Sanajt (or Nebka or Nequerofes): Likely ascended to the throne through his marriage to the daughter of Jasejemuy. He ruled for approximately 20 years and is believed to have been interred in Abu Rash, located about 8 km northwest of Giza.
    • Zoser (or Dyeser or Necherjet-Dyeser): The first pharaoh to achieve widespread fame, Zoser commissioned the construction of the Step Pyramid of Saqqara, considered the first monumental pyramid, as part of his own funerary complex. The legendary architect Imhotep designed the pyramid, possibly on top of a mastaba built during the reign of Zoser’s predecessor. He reigned for about three decades and may have been the son of Jasejemuy, making him the brother of his predecessor, Sanajt. Zoser established the southern border near Elephantine and the first cataract of the Nile. He sponsored military expeditions to the Sinai Peninsula and mining operations for extracting minerals.
    • Sejemjet (or Tyreis or Dyeserty or Teti or Dyeser Teti): He ruled for a brief period of just over five years. Although he began construction on a second stepped pyramid in Saqqara for his own burial, it was likely left unfinished and no longer exists.
    • Jaba (or Mesocris or Syedes): His reign was short, and he may have attempted to construct a stratified pyramid in Zawyet el-Aryan or possibly a mastaba.
    • Nebkara (or Neferkara): Some Egyptologists believe that he is the same pharaoh as Jaba. He is believed to have commissioned the construction of a pyramid in Zawyet el-Aryan, located between Giza and Abusir.
    • Huny: Despite reigning for more than two decades, little is known about his life or his place of burial, which is believed to be either Meidum or Zawyet el-Aryan. Huny was the first pharaoh to use the royal cartouche, a rope-like symbol that encircles his name when written in hieroglyphics, as a means of facilitating readability and providing symbolic protection in the afterlife. All subsequent pharaohs in this chronology of Egyptian rulers adopted this practice.
  • Dynasty IV (c. 2600-c. 2500): it is one of the most renowned periods in ancient Egyptian history. Its monarchs were known for building the most impressive and iconic pyramids in the world, known as the “classic pyramids”, including the Pyramids of Giza. It is generally accepted that these pharaohs were from a different dynasty than the previous one, although there is some debate on whether they were from a different lineage. It is believed that the first of these pharaohs, Senefru, could be the son of Huny, or at least his wife Meresankh I.
    • Senefru (or Sneferu or Snofru) was a significant figure who ruled for over two decades. He is best known for commissioning the construction of several pyramids, including the Meidum Pyramid (which was started by his predecessor Huny), the Bent Pyramid of Dahshur, and the Red Pyramid, also located in Dahshur. Although the exact location of his tomb is unknown, some scholars suggest that he may have been buried in the Red Pyramid. Senefru was considered one of the most powerful pharaohs of the Old Kingdom based on his ability to mobilize resources, including prisoners from Nubia and Libya, to build these impressive structures.
    • Khufu (or Cheops or Jufu): Considered one of the most powerful pharaohs of the Old Kingdom, he is renowned for commissioning the Great Pyramid of Giza, the largest and most elaborate pyramid in the complex. Despite his immense wealth and power, very little is known about his life and there are few surviving depictions of him. He likely reigned for around 50 years and was also responsible for constructing palaces and pyramids for queens.
    • Djedefre (or Radedef or Didufri): Son of Khufu, Djedefre is believed to have been buried in the Abu Roash pyramid, now in ruins. He was a patron of the sun god Ra and his reign was relatively short.
    • Khafre (or Jafra): Another son of Khufu, Khafre is famous for commissioning the second pyramid of Giza and possibly also the Great Sphinx. He likely reigned for around 25 years and there are several surviving depictions of him, including a well-known seated sculpture in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
    • Baefra (or Baka): Baefra was a little-known pharaoh who ruled briefly, and his possible burial place is believed to be in Zawyet el-Aryan, although no tomb has been discovered. It is speculated that he might have been another son of Khufu.
    • Menkaure (or Mykerinos): Menkaure, another prominent pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, built the smallest of the three pyramids at Giza. He is also famous for commissioning the Menkaure Triad, a celebrated sculptural group currently exhibited at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. While his lineage is uncertain, he is believed to be the son of Djedefre.
    • Shepseskaf (or Seberkeres): Presumed to be the son of Mycerinus, Shepseskaf is thought to have deviated from the traditions of his predecessors. Instead of building a grand pyramid, he chose one of the last great mastabas that are still standing in Saqqara. He might have had conflicts with the influential Heliopolis clergy, as he favored the cult of Ptah over the solar god Ra. His deviation from tradition and preference for Ptah led to him being cursed in later years.
    • Dyedefptah: Very little is known about Dyedefptah, who would be the final ruler of one of Egypt’s most famous dynasties, known for their grand pyramids. Some scholars doubt his existence and do not include him in their chronology of Egyptian pharaohs.
  • Dynasty V (c. 2500 – c. 2350): it remains shrouded in mystery, but it is known for its significant contributions to the Texts of the Pyramids. These authentic spells, written in hieroglyphics on the walls of funerary enclosures, were believed to aid the pharaohs in the afterlife. The dynasty ruled from Memphis and promoted the cult of Ra, with numerous solar temples built during this time. Later, the cult of Osiris gained importance, as did the cult of some pharaohs, long after their deaths. Diplomatic and commercial missions to foreign lands were also undertaken.
    • Userkaf (or Userkeres): possibly a son-in-law of the previous pharaoh Mycerinus, started a new lineage by marrying his daughter. He constructed a pyramid in Saqqara and an important temple for the cult of Ra in Abusir.
    • Sahura (or Sahure): the son of Userkaf, was buried in Abusir and also built a solar temple there. His reign of almost 20 years is considered the high point of the Fifth Dynasty, marked by prosperous trade relations with the Mediterranean Levant, where he also undertook military campaigns to capture prisoners. His figure was revered with various cults until the Ptolemaic period, the last of the dynasties of Egypt.
    • Neferirkare Kakai (or Neferirkara): His funerary pyramid is located in Abusir, where he also ordered the construction of other structures within a funerary complex. He ruled for 20 years and his father was Userkaf. During his reign, the clergy gained more independence and power.
    • Shepseskere (or Shepseskara Necheruser): is believed to have been buried in the Abusir pyramid complex, in an unfinished burial pyramid. He is a mysterious figure in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs because there is no known familial connection to his predecessors, although he may have been the brother of Neferirkare Kakai. The lack of information about his brief reign and the absence of major construction projects during his time on the throne may explain the mystery surrounding his figure.
    • Neferefre: He ruled for just over ten years and initiated the construction of an unfinished pyramid (or mastaba) in Abusir. The site contained some mummy remains, as well as rich mural decoration and funerary objects, including solar boats.
    • Nauserre: Reigning for about 30 years, Nauserre was the son of Neferirkare Kakai and oversaw the construction of several pyramids for himself and his relatives, including the Pyramid of Nyuserra in Abusir. He completed earlier pyramid projects and was revered like Sahura, but only until the XII dynasty. His life is well-documented due to contemporary sources.
    • Menkauhor: Possibly the son of Nauserre, Menkauhor ruled for ten years and was a popular pharaoh, though his pyramid’s location in Saqqara or Abusir remains unknown.
    • Djedkare: Djedkare, who may have been Menkauhor’s son, had a long reign of several decades. His funerary complex was situated in Saqqara and featured a large pyramid where his mummy was likely discovered, along with a temple.
    • Unas: Despite having one of the smallest pyramids in Saqqara, Unas was worshiped after his death and may have experienced economic decline during his reign, which lasted between 15 and 30 years. While some consider him the last pharaoh of this dynasty, others disagree, but his death did lead to a period of succession tensions.
  • Dynasty VI (c. 2350 – c. 2160): it is considered by some to be a continuation of the Fifth Dynasty. The dynasty’s capital remained in Memphis, and it was well-documented due to the inscriptions found in the tombs of nobles, who gradually increased their power until they became almost equal to the pharaoh’s power by the end of this period.
    • Teti: who married a daughter of Unis at the beginning of his reign, was the first ruler of the Sixth Dynasty. However, it is believed that he was assassinated as a result of a conspiracy by Userkara, a possible descendant of the Fifth Dynasty who wanted to take the throne. Teti’s pyramid, now a mound, can be found in the funerary complex of Teti in Saqqara, near Zoser’s pyramid. A sculpture of Teti’s figure is preserved in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
    • Userkara: He may have been a descendant of the V dynasty who wanted to dispute the throne with Teti by promoting his assassination. It is suggested that he was also deposed by his successor, Pepy I. His reign was ephemeral, probably without time to build a funerary complex.
    • Pepy I Merire (or Meryra Pepi): With a reign of 50 years during a prosperous time, Pepy I Merire has a significant amount of information available, including sculptures and statuettes. However, he was unable to prevent the growing influence of high officials and nobility. Among the most famous officials was Uni, his trusted chaty or vizier. The Pyramid of Pepy I was located in Saqqara, in a large complex of pyramids near those of other dynasties in Egypt.
    • Merenre (or Merenra I or Merenra Nemtyemsaf): As the son of Pepy I, Merenre retained Uni as his chaty. Although his pyramid is now in ruins in Saqqara, his body was discovered, making him one of the oldest royal mummies ever found.
    • Pepy II (or Neferkara Pepy): The son of Pepy I, Pepy II holds the distinction of ruling for the longest reported period in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, around 90 years. His funerary complex was also located in Saqqara. However, after his death, the dynasty fell apart due to the excessive power accumulated by high officials, and the country’s organization deteriorated, leading to the decentralization of government in Memphis. This was also compounded by the drain on resources caused by the construction of these pyramids.

First Intermediate Period (c. 2160-2055 BC)

During this period, Egypt experienced a significant decentralization of power in the nomes, causing the country to lose its unity. The dynasties overlapped, and the nominal power rested with Memphite rulers, while the actual power was held by nomarchs from various regions. The period was marked by instability and military conflicts between different territories.

  • Dynasty VII: This is one of the less documented dynasties of Egypt. It might have had about ten rulers, who briefly succeeded each other due to some social revolution. Despite their names being included in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, their importance and impact on Ancient Egypt is practically insignificant. The rulers of this dynasty were Necherkara, Menkara, Neferkara II, Neferkara Neby, Dyedkara Shemai, Neferkara Jendu, Marenhor, Neferkamin, Nikara, Neferkara Tereru, and Neferkahor.
  • Dynasty VIII: This dynasty was extremely short-lived, with reigns lasting only a few years or even months. It was probably made up of different governors who attempted to restore central power to the city of Memphis but failed. Similar to the 7th Dynasty, their place in history is negligible, and their names are included in the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs for reference. The rulers of this dynasty were Neferkara Pepyseneb, Neferkamin Aanu, Kakaukara Ibi, Neferkaura, Neferkahuor, and Neferirkara II.
  • Dynasty IX: This dynasty consisted of a group of rulers based in Heracleopolis Magna, in the Fayum Oasis area. While not very famous, a few of them are mentioned in various royal lists, including Kety I, Neferkare III, and Nebkaure Kety II. Little is known about them, and the rest are not even known by their full names.
  • Dynasty X: This dynasty remains shrouded in mystery with little information available about their reign, but it is believed that they maintained power in Heracleopolis Magna. They engaged in warfare with the 11th Dynasty rulers of Thebes who sought to expand their influence beyond their own territory. Notable names from this dynasty include Uahkare Kety III, Kety V, Kety VI, and Kety VII Merybre or Merikare.
  • Dynasty XI (c. 2150-c. 2055 BC): The nomarchs of Thebes (known as Uaset to the ancient Egyptians and located in present-day Luxor), in Upper Egypt, formed this dynasty. They aimed to extend their reach beyond their own region, leading to conflicts with other dynasties, such as the 10th Dynasty of Heracleopolis Magna. The first pharaohs of this dynasty were:
    • Mentuhotep I (or Tepia Mentuhotep): He expanded his authority to Dendera and was the first to adopt the title of pharaoh. However, some experts speculate that he may be a fictional or mythical character created by the 11th Dynasty.
    • Intef I (or Sehertauy Intef): He inherited the title of pharaoh from Mentuhotep I and ruled over Upper Egypt. He engaged in a power struggle with the kings of Heracleopolis for control of Lower Egypt, but was ultimately unsuccessful. He was interred in El-Tarif, Thebes.
    • Intef II (or Wahankh Intef): He expanded his reign to include Abydos and had a complicated relationship with Uahkare Kety III of the 10th Dynasty of Lower Egypt, alternating between periods of war and peace. He was laid to rest in Saff el-Kisasiya, Thebes, with the unique detail of his favorite dogs being represented in his tomb, a practice that would become common among Egyptian dynasties.
    • Intef III (or Najtnebtepnefer Intef): He had a short and mostly peaceful reign, with no records of territorial gains or losses. He was buried in Saff el-Baqar, El-Tarif, Thebes.

Middle Kingdom (c. 2055-1781 BC)

During the Middle Kingdom, the pharaohs once again held power over the entire unified country, with Thebes (or Waset, modern-day Luxor) serving as the capital.

  • Dynasty XI (c. 2055-c. 1990 BC): This dynasty marks the end of the First Intermediate Period and the beginning of the Middle Kingdom. It was responsible for reunifying the country, and like the previous monarchs in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, it was based in Thebes, which became the capital of the entire nation.
    • Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II: He launched successful military campaigns that enabled him to rule over the entire Egyptian territory, expanding the southern border to the second cataract and defeating Libyans and Bedouins. He implemented a policy of centralized rule while allowing some autonomy to regional rulers. His reign ushered in a period of prosperity, particularly in Upper Egypt. After his death, he was revered as a god in his capital city of Thebes. One of his enduring architectural legacies is the funerary complex of Deir el-Bahari, where he was interred.
    • Senakhtenre Mentuhotep III: He solidified the gains of his father during a reign that lasted over a decade and carried on with some of his construction projects. Although he intended to be buried in Deir el-Bahari, his tomb remained unfinished, and he was likely laid to rest in Thebes.
    • Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV: Little is known about his life, although it’s possible that he engaged in trade expeditions to the Red Sea. The location of his burial and the details surrounding his succession remain unclear.
  • Dynasty XII (c. 1990-c. 1750 BC): regarded as one of the most significant dynasties in ancient Egyptian history, as it marked the pinnacle of the Middle Kingdom era with remarkable military expeditions and territorial expansions, particularly to the south, against the Kingdom of Kush. The administrative capital was moved to Ity-Tauy, whose exact location remains unknown but is believed to be near the El Fayum oasis. The kings who ruled during this period and contributed to the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs are as follows:
    • Amenemhet I (or Sehetepibra Amenemhat): believed to have been the vizier of Mentuhotep IV, whom he overthrew, thereby establishing the Twelfth Dynasty. His reign is known as a period of progress and prosperity, marked by significant construction projects. However, his reign ended tragically with his possible murder by his co-regent and successor, Sesostris I, who was his son. Amenemhet I’s funerary pyramid is located in El Lisht, where materials from the pyramids of earlier dynasties were reused.
    • Sesostris I (or Senusert I or Jeperkara Senusert): one of the most powerful monarchs of the dynasty, reigning for almost five decades. He oversaw a great deal of construction work, including the construction of new temples and the expansion of existing ones. His pyramid in El Lisht is notable, but his most significant achievement was initiating the construction of the Temple of Amun in Karnak, where the White Chapel, constructed in his honor, still exists today. His obelisk in Heliopolis, the oldest surviving one, is also famous and comes from the temple of Atum-Ra, which he expanded.
    • Amenemhet II (or Nubkaura Amenemhat): reigned for over three decades and allowed significant autonomy to the nomarchs. He undertook military campaigns and used Syrian captives as slaves to build his funerary pyramid in Dashur, where tombs of several wives were also found.
    • Sesostris II (or Jajeperra Senusert or Senusert II): of short reign but undertook significant engineering and urban projects in El Fayum. His burial place is uncertain, but it may have been in El Lahun.
    • Sesostris III (or Jakaura Senusert or Senusert III): the most prominent pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, he reigned for about 50 years and definitively annexed Kush while suppressing rebellions and raising defensive walls.
    • Amenemhet III (or Nymaatra Amenemhat): another great pharaoh of this period, his reign lasted four decades and brought stability and economic prosperity. He built temples and funerary pyramids for his wives in Dashur (Black Pyramid) and himself in Hawara, known as the Labyrinth for its complex system of galleries.
    • Amenemhet IV (or Maajerura Amenemhat): Despite a short reign, Amenemhet IV brought prosperity and peace to Egypt. He initiated mining expeditions in the Sinai region, but had no heirs, so his successor was his sister or half-sister Neferusobek. Although his tomb remains undiscovered, his funerary pyramid is believed to be located in Mazghuna, south of Dashur.
    • Neferusobek (or Sebekkara Neferusobek): She was the first female ruler in the history of Egypt, although her reign was short and marked by political instability due to her lack of male heirs. Neferusobek was probably a half-sister or aunt of Amenemhet IV. Like her predecessor, her tomb is also believed to be located in Mazghuna, near Dashur.

Second Intermediate Period (c. 1750- c. 1550 BC)

This marks a turbulent time in the history of ancient Egypt, characterized by the rise of new dynasties that failed to assert their authority and the domination of the country by foreign invaders known as the Hyksos (dynasties XV and XVI). The Kingdom of Kush also posed a threat, extending its reach up to the first cataract of the Nile.

  • Dynasty XIII (c. 1750-c. 1650): was one of the dynasties of Egypt with the greatest number of kings, as more than fifty are usually cited. But they had an extremely ephemeral character due to the little consistency of their mandates. These are the ones that have been able to be contrasted according to different inscriptions and that, therefore, can be added to this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs: Jatauyra, Amenemhat Sonbef, Amenemhat V, Hetepibra, Iufni, Amenemhat VI, Semenkara, Sehetepibra, Suadyekara, Nedyemibra, Sebekhotep I, Renseneb, Hor I, Amenemhat VII, Sebekhotep II, Jendyer, Imiramesha, Intef IV, Set I, Sebekhotep III, Neferhotep I, Sahathor, Sebekhotep IV, Sebekhotep V, Ibiau, Merneferra (also called Ay I), Sebekhotep VI, Suadyetu, Ined, Hor II (also called Hori), Sebekhotep VII, Dedumes, Ibi II, Hor III, Sonebmiyu, Sejaenra I, Merjeperra, and Merkara.
  • Dynasty XIV (ca. 1700-ca. 1600): ruled over a kingdom in the Nile Delta that was split during the reign of Sebekhotep IV. Therefore, they are partially contemporary with Dynasty XIII. About seventy names are indicated, which also indicates the little stability of the territory. Some of the pharaohs from this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs are: Nehesy, Jatyra, Nebfautra, Sehebra, Seuadykara, Uebenra, Autibra, Heribra, Nebsenra, Sejeperenra, Dyedjerura, Seanijibra, Nefertembra, Kakemura, Neferibra, Hepu, Shemsu, Penensetensetep, Jeretheb Shepedu, Anetyerira and Inai.
  • Dynasty XV (ca. 1650-ca. 1550): the first of the two dynasties of Egypt formed by Hyksos monarchs, who began by dominating a part of the Nile Delta and extended their rule further south, to about Abydos (where another local dynasty may have emerged, according to some authors), exercising effective control over the rulers of Dynasty XIV and XVII, until hostilities broke out with the latter. By the end of this dynasty, their kings had largely assimilated Egyptian traditions. They established their capital in Avaris. As a curious fact, some biblical stories from the Book of Genesis, of the Old Testament, such as the reception of Joseph, son of Jacob, are set in this historical context. Some names that can be included in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs are Salitis (or Sheshi), Bnon, Apacnan (or Meresurre Jaqob-her), Iannas (or Jyan), Apophis I, Apophis II, and Jamudy.
  • Dynasty XVI (ca. 1650-ca. 1550): the second of the two dynasties of Egypt led by Hyksos, contemporaneous with the previous one, but ruling over a smaller portion of territory (in Thebes and its surroundings). Some of the pharaohs from this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs are Dyehuti (or Sejemra Sementauy), Sebekhotep VIII (or Sejemra Seusertauy), Neferhotep III (or Sejemra Sanjtauy), Montuhetepi (or Seanjenra), Nebirau I (or Suadyenra), Nebirau II (or Neferkara), Semenenra, Bebianj (or Seuserenra), Sejemra Seduaset, Dudumesu I (or Dyedhotepra), Dudumesu II (or Djedneferra), Montuemsaf (or Djedanjra), Montuhotep VI (or Meranjra), and Senusert IV (or Seneferibre).
  • Dynasty XVII (ca. 1600-ca. 1550): although short-lived and local (in Thebes), it is one of the most important dynasties of Egypt, since it ‘liberated’ the country from Hyksos rule, making it contemporary with Dynasties XV and XVI. They were Theban governors who rearmed themselves to expel these foreign kings through a war. Some pharaohs from this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs are:
    • Intef V (also known as Nebhepetre Intef): was buried in the necropolis of Dra Abu el-Naga near Thebes. Although his mummy was discovered, it disintegrated before it could be properly studied.
    • Rahotep (also known as Sekhemre Wahkhaw): ruled over a territory that extended as far north as Abydos. He restored temples and engaged in conflicts with the Hyksos, but the location of his burial site remains unknown.
    • Sobekemsaf I (also known as Sekhemre Wadjkhaw): reigned for around 15 years and was likely buried in Thebes. However, his tomb may have suffered damage or theft, similar to that of his son, Sobekemsaf II. Succession after his reign is uncertain, with some sources mentioning Djehuty, Mentuhotep VII, Nebirau I and II, SemenEnra, and Seuserenra, but other chronologies point to Sobekemsaf II.
    • Sobekemsaf II (son of Sobekemsaf I): is mainly known for the theft of his tomb in Thebes, which was documented in the 12th century BC. This was a common issue faced by many dynasties in Egypt.
    • Intef VI, also known as Sekhemre Wepmaat Intef, was the son of Sobekemsaf II and is believed to have been buried in the necropolis of Dra Abu el-Naga in Thebes. However, his tomb has yet to be discovered.
    • Intef VII, or Sekhemre Herhormaat Intef, was another son of Sobekemsaf II and buried in Dra Abu el-Naga in Thebes, just like his brother Intef VI. Compared to his predecessors in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, his life is better documented. It is known that he had a peaceful relationship with the contemporary Hyksos king, Apophis I, of the 15th dynasty, with whom he may have had some sort of agreement.
    • Senakhtenre Ahmose’s reign is shrouded in mystery, and the location of his burial is unknown. His wife, Tetisheri, became famous for being the driving force behind the expulsion of the Hyksos, one of the most significant events in all of the dynasties of Egypt, which occurred years after his reign.
    • Seqenenre Tao, the son of Senakhtenre Ahmose and Tetisheri, reigned briefly, and little is known about his life, but he was a fierce king in the fight against the Hyksos. His mummy was discovered in Deir el-Bahri in good condition, with clear signs of wounds.
    • Kamose, also known as Wadjeperra Kamose, was either the son or brother of Seqenenre Tao, and although he reigned for only a few years, he played a crucial role in the prelude to the next dynasty and the New Empire. He was known for his expansionism to the north, where the Hyksos still ruled during the time of Apophis I of the 15th dynasty, and to the south, at the expense of the Nubians. He was buried in Dra Abu el-Naga, but his mummy was not well-preserved.

New Kingdom (c. 1550-1069 BCE)

During the New Kingdom, Egypt was reunited after the defeat of the Hyksos and several dynasties ruled over the entire territory, marking one of the most glorious periods in Egyptian history. 

  • The XVIII dynasty (c. 1550-c. 1295 BCE): which succeeded the XVII dynasty, was composed of up to 15 kings from the same lineage. This dynasty is among the best-documented in Egypt, with abundant information about the lives of its rulers. It was a time of great splendor and territorial expansion, marked by the completion of the expulsion of the Hyksos. The capital was located in Thebes.
    • Ahmose I (or Nebpehtyra Ahmose or Amosis I), probably the son of Seqenenra Taa and brother of Kamose, is considered the initiator of a new dynasty for having already ruled over a unified Egypt again, having completed the expulsion of the Hyksos of the XV dynasty. In addition, he expanded domains in Nubia and Canaan during his reign of about 25 years. Although he may have built a funerary pyramid in Abydos, his mummy was found in good condition in Deir el-Bahari.
    • Amenhotep I (or Amenofis I or Dyeserkara Amenhotep) continued the work of his predecessor Ahmose I, consolidating his efforts and expanding southward to the second cataract in Nubian territory during his two-decade reign. His mummy was also found in Deir el-Bahari. He likely had no offspring, which suggests that his successor in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, Thutmose I, was a high-ranking military officer who was related to him, possibly a nephew.
    • Thutmose I, also known as Tutmosis I, was not the biological son of his predecessor Amenhotep I (Amenofis I) but rather his nephew. He is credited with the foundation of the Valley of the Kings necropolis and actively participated in its design with his architect Ineni due to his architectural skills. During his reign, which lasted just over a decade, he expanded Egypt’s territory to the fourth cataract and led military campaigns to Mesopotamia.
    • Thutmose II, the son of Thutmose I, reigned for about a decade and led troops that fought a Nubian counteroffensive in the south while carrying out small campaigns in Syria and the Sinai Peninsula. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Hatshepsut, the daughter of Thutmose I and stepsister of Thutmose II, was a unique figure in Egyptian history because she assumed masculine attributes in order to govern and was therefore considered a “pharaoh”. Supported by the clergy of Amun of Thebes, she maintained a dispute with her nephew Thutmose III, who eventually succeeded her in the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs. She embarked on an ambitious construction project to beautify Egypt, resulting in numerous examples of her work, such as the Red Chapel of Karnak. Although her reign was mostly peaceful, there were also military confrontations on the southern and eastern borders. She was buried in the Valley of the Kings after ruling for more than two decades.
    • Thutmose III (also known as Menjeperra Dyehutymose): Despite facing disputes with his aunt Hatshepsut to ascend to the throne, Thutmose III eventually succeeded her after her death and reigned for almost fifty years. He was one of the most powerful pharaohs of all Egyptian dynasties, expanding the kingdom’s territory to include Canaan, Syria, the Sinai Peninsula, and Nubia. Under his reign, numerous obelisks were erected in various foreign cities, and the temple of Amun in Karnak was expanded. Although his tomb was in the Valley of the Kings, his mummy was likely stolen and is now located in Deir el-Bahari.
    • Amenhotep II (also known as Aajeperura Amenhotep): The son of Thutmose III, Amenhotep II solidified his father’s conquests and reigned for over two decades. His tomb in the Valley of the Kings was a significant discovery, as it contained not only his mummy but also those of Thutmose IV and Amenhotep III, which are now housed in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
    • Thutmose IV (or Menjeperura Thutmose): As the son of Amenhotep II, Thutmose IV also faced conflicts with the powerful clergy of Amun. He promoted the importance of the god Ra, which caused disagreements that foreshadowed the later rupture that occurred during the reign of Amenhotep IV. Nevertheless, he oversaw the construction of buildings in Karnak and was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His mummy was discovered in excellent condition and is now on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
    • Amenhotep III (or Nebmaatra Amenhotep or Imenhotep III): was the son of Thutmose IV and had a long reign of prosperity and stability, but he maintained a rivalry with the clergy of Amun, moving away from Thebes and establishing himself in his palaces of Malkata and El Fayum. However, his burial was also in the Valley of the Kings, like most monarchs of this and other dynasties of Egypt since then.
    • Amenhotep IV (or Akhenaton or Ajenaton or Neferjeperura Amenhotep): was one of the most famous pharaohs of all dynasties of Egypt. He broke with the cult of Amun, promoting the worship of a single deity: the sun god Aten, proclaiming himself as its prophet. He built a temple in his honor in the city of Akhetaten, known as Amarna, during the Amarna Period. His wife Nefertiti also played a significant role during his reign. Besides the religious rupture, there were territorial losses and changes in artistic styles. His burial place remains a mystery, although he was probably buried in a royal tomb in Amarna.
    • Semenejkara (Smenker or Anjjeperura Semenejkara): inherited the throne from their father, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton), and was part of the Amarna Period. There is little information about their life, and it is unclear whether they were male or female. Their burial place is unknown, although the theory is that they were later moved to the Valley of the Kings.
    • Tutankhamun, despite his brief reign and untimely death before the age of 20, is one of the most well-known pharaohs in Egyptian history. This is largely due to the sensational discovery of his tomb in the Valley of the Kings in the early 20th century and the famous funerary mask that now resides in the Egyptian Museum. However, his historical significance also lies in his restoration of polytheistic worship, which marked a departure from the monotheistic Amarna Period initiated by his father, Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton). This religious shift was continued by subsequent dynasties of Egypt.
    • Ay (Jeperjeperura Ay) is believed to have been the father of Nefertiti and possibly the father-in-law of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton), although his familial relationship with the rest of the dynasty is unclear. He ascended to the throne as an elderly man and was buried in the western sector of the Valley of the Kings.
    • Horemheb (or Dyeserjeperura Horemheb) had no familial ties to his predecessors and was a high courtier and military commander under Amenhotep IV, Semenejkara, Tutankhamun, and Ay. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, and no descendants are known to exist.
  • Dynasty XIX (c. 1295-c. 1185 BC): This was a significant dynasty in the history of Egypt, particularly its first four pharaohs. It is known as the Ramesside Period, named after many of its members (Ramses), and credited with breaking away from the Amarna Period. This dynasty had a strong military focus, with its pharaohs receiving rigorous training. During this period, a new capital was established in the Nile Delta, called Pi-Ramesses.
    • Ramses I (Menpehtyre Ramessesu): he began as a general in the royal armies and later served as chaty (vizier) of Horemheb. He was chosen to succeed Horemheb, who had no male heirs, and he established his son Seti I as his successor. Although his reign was short, it was significant for initiating one of the most well-known dynasties in Egyptian history. Ramses I was buried in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Seti I (or Menmaatre Seti): he reclaimed much of the territory lost during Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton)’s reign and oversaw significant construction projects, including the temple of Abydos. Seti I was buried in the Valley of the Kings, and his mummy was discovered in Deir el-Bahari, remarkably well-preserved. It can now be viewed at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
    • Ramses II (or Usermaatre Setepenra): one of the most renowned pharaohs in Egyptian history, known for his long reign of almost 70 years and military prowess. He led great campaigns, including the famous Battle of Kadesh against the Hittites, and commissioned some of the most magnificent construction projects in Ancient Egypt, such as Abu Simbel, the Ramesseum, and Pi-Ramesses (in the present-day city of Qantir). He also expanded many existing temples and founded a new capital that remained the center of power for several dynasties. His remains were buried in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Merenptah (or Baenre Meryamun): the son of Ramses II who succeeded him on the throne, albeit at an old age. His reign was short, and he faced challenges from the Sea Peoples, a confederation of seafaring raiders who threatened Egypt’s stability. Merenptah was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His death triggered a period of internal strife and succession disputes.
    • Amenmeses (or Menmira Setepenra): a pharaoh who seized the throne amid the power struggle that followed Merenptah’s death, but his legitimacy was disputed. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, but his tomb was desecrated, possibly by his rival Seti II, who claimed the throne for himself.
    • Seti II (or Userkheperura Seti): the son of Merenptah and the rightful heir to the throne, according to his supporters. His reign was marked by internal turmoil and factionalism, and he relied heavily on his advisors and his wife Tausert, who later became pharaoh in her own right. Seti II accused Amenmeses of usurping the throne and defiled his tomb as a sign of contempt. Seti II was also buried in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Siptah (or Ajenra Setepenra): Although physically incapacitated for military actions, Siptah became pharaoh at a young age after the death of his predecessor. He died at a very young age, and his reign was marked by political instability and conflict.
    • Tausert (or Sitra-Meryamón Tauseret-Merenmut): Tausert was a queen-pharaoh who initially ruled as regent for her stepson, Siptah. After his death, she claimed the throne and became the last ruler of the 19th dynasty. Her reign was characterized by political turmoil and conflict with Sethnakht, a military leader who founded the 20th dynasty. Although she had a tomb built in the Valley of the Kings, she never occupied it, as it was later usurped by Sethnakht.
  • Dynasty XX (c. 1185 BC-1069 BC): it was the second dynasty of the Ramessid Period in ancient Egypt. It was founded by Sethnajt and had 10 pharaohs, with only Ramses III being significant as a ruler. The capital remained in Pi-Ramses throughout the dynasty’s existence.
    • Sethnajt (Sethnajt-Meryamonra) ruled for a short period of two to three years but managed to change the dynasty on the Egyptian throne. He was likely related to one of Ramses II’s many sons and excluded the family circle of Seti II from the succession. He had a bitter conflict with the queen-pharaoh Tausert and took over her funerary space in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Ramses III (or Ramses-Heqaiunu) is remembered for halting the invasion of the Sea Peoples. He aimed to follow in the footsteps of Ramses II and continued his constructive policy by expanding numerous temples and building a large enclosure in Medinet Habu. His tomb is in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Ramses IV (or Ramses-Maatra-Meriamón) ascended to the throne at an advanced age and ruled for a decade. He continued his father’s expansion of temples and constructions. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, like the pharaohs of many other dynasties in ancient Egypt.
    • Ramses V (or Ramses-Amonhirjopshef): he was a pharaoh who may have been dethroned by his uncle Ramses VI, or he may have replaced him upon his death during a period of succession disputes. However, Ramses VI later usurped his tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Ramses V’s mummy is currently on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
    • Ramses VI (or Ramses-Amonhirjopshef-Necherheqaiunu): he is known for his acquisitive personality, taking credit for monuments built by earlier pharaohs in this chronology of Egyptian rulers. His reign was marked by territorial losses and declining influence in Upper Egypt.
    • Ramses VII (or Ramses-Itefamón-Necherheqaiunu): he ruled for less than a decade during a period of social unrest. Although he was buried in the Valley of the Kings, his tomb has never been found, likely due to robbery, a common occurrence among the tombs of many Egyptian dynasties.
    • Ramses VIII (or Ramses-Setherjepshef-Meriamón): his reign was brief, lasting only a few months, and his tomb has not been identified in the Valley of the Kings. Likewise, his mummy has not been found to this day.
    • Ramses IX (or Ramses-Jaemuaset-Meriamón): ruled for almost two decades and attempted to revitalize the kingdom commercially, while also supporting the expansion of certain temples. However, social instability and the growing power of the clergy of Amun in Thebes continued during his reign. His tomb is located in the Valley of the Kings, but it was open since ancient times, at least since the Greeks visited Egypt.
    • Ramses X (or Ramses-Amonherjepeshef): very little is known about this pharaoh, as hardly any documentation or funerary objects have been preserved, even from his unfinished tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
    • Ramses XI (or Ramses-Jaemuaset-Mereramón-Necherheqaiunu): he was the last pharaoh of the second of the Ramesside dynasties of Egypt and reigned for nearly 30 years. However, he was unable to prevent the disintegration of territories, the looting of tombs, and civil conflicts.

Third Intermediate Period (1069-747 BC)

Following the conclusion of the Ramesside Period and the New Kingdom, a new era of division and fragmentation began in Egypt. Different centers of power emerged contemporaneously, leading to the rise of various Egyptian dynasties from the XXI to the XXV, mostly of Libyan origin, who combined their own traditions with the Egyptian culture.

Furthermore, the High Priests of Amun in Upper Egypt were an institution that held effective power. These priests had amassed great power throughout the New Kingdom, and they now served as top officials of a large territory around their capital, Thebes. Some high priests also became pharaohs and are included in the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, such as Psusennes III (who was the pharaoh of the XXI dynasty under the name Psusennes II), Sheshonq II (XXII dynasty), and Osorkon III (XXIII dynasty).

  • Dynasty XXI (c. 1069-c. 945 BC): The monarchs of this dynasty were of Libyan descent and had their power base in the Nile Delta, with their capital in Tanis. Effective administration in Upper Egypt, however, was governed by the High Priests of Amun. Monarchs of this dynasty include Smendes I, Amenemnisu (or Neferjeres), Psusennes I, Amenemope, Osorkon the Elder, Siamun, and Psusennes II.
  • Dynasty XXII (c. 945-c. 715 BC): Another of the dynasties of Egypt with Libyan origins, their effective control was limited to Lower Egypt, under the subordination of the High Priests of Amun in Upper Egypt. Pharaohs of this dynasty include Sheshonk I, Osorkon I, Sheshonk II, Takelot I, Osorkon II, Takelot II, Sheshonk III, Pimui, Sheshonk V, and Osorkon IV.
  • Dynasty XXIII (c. 818-c. 715 BC): This dynasty was a lineage of rulers who created a territorial split in Leontopolis in the Nile Delta. Their kings were of Libyan Berber origin (called ma or mashauash). Members of this dynasty include Petubastis I, Sheshonk IV, Osorkon III, Takelot III, Rudamon, and Sheshonk VI.
  • Dynasty XXIV (c. 727-c. 915 BC): This dynasty is traditionally considered of Libyan origin, although now it is under discussion. It only contributes two names to this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs: Tefnait and Bokenranef.
  • Dynasty XXV (c. 747-c. 664 BC) was the only dynasty of Egypt of Cushitic origin, originating from the Kingdom of Kush in Nubia. Their monarchs expanded northward, eventually conquering all of Egypt and adopting the title of pharaohs. The early kings, Alara and Kashta, were contemporaries with some of the monarchs of the XXII, XXIII and XXIV dynasties during their conquest. However, from approximately 715 BC, they were the sole rulers of the country. Although they are buried in present-day Sudan, the Cushite kings can still be included in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs:
    • Piye (or Pianjy): he defeated the last kings of the XXII, XXIII and XXIV dynasties and assumed the title of pharaoh.
    • Shabaka (or Shabako): he repelled the attack of the Assyrian king Sargon II and ushered in a period of peace, which he used to build numerous monuments.
    • Shabataka (or Shabikto): peace with the Assyrians was broken.
    • Taharqa: he was defeated by the Assyrians, who imposed the first member of the XXVI dynasty as pharaoh.
    • Tanutamon: he made new advances towards Lower Egypt, but eventually withdrew his control to Lower Nubia.

Late Period or Third Intermediate Period (c. 664 BC-c. 332 BC)

During this era, foreign powers formed or dominated the dynasties of Egypt.

  • Dynasty XXVI (664-525 BC): Known as the Saite Dynasty, as its capital was in Sais, it was the last local dynasty that briefly achieved a reunification of the Egyptian territory for a little over a century, but always with the approval of the Assyrian Empire. The following monarchs were Saite in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs:
    • Necho I (or Neco II): a local governor in Sais who can be considered the origin of this dynasty.
    • Psammeticus I (or Wahibre Psamtik or Psamtek): the first pharaoh of the dynasty, who reunified Egypt. He rebelled against Assyrian power and established commercial relations with Ancient Greece.
    • Necho II (or Neco II): an ally of the Assyrians who fought against the Babylonians on their territory (and lost). He undertook ambitious projects, such as the Canal of Necho, considered a precedent to the Suez Canal.
    • Psammeticus II (or Neferibre-Psametiko): pushed the Kushites south, consolidating Egyptian domination up to the first cataract of the Nile.
    • Apries (or Haaibra-Uahibra and Hofra according to the Bible): unsuccessful in his foreign expeditions, such as in Judah.
    • Ahmose II (or Amasis Ahmosis II): probably a military man who came to the throne after a successful rebellion.
    • Psammeticus III: reigned for only one year. The last pharaoh of this dynasty, which finally succumbed to Persian conquest.
  • Dynasty XXVII (525-359 BC) was the first of the two dynasties that were subjected to Persian (Achaemenid) domination. The Persian emperors held the title of pharaoh but showed no interest in Egyptian civilization, ruling from Persia and burying their dead outside of Egypt. The pharaohs of this dynasty were Cambyses II, Darius I, Xerxes I, Artaxerxes I, Xerxes II, Darius II, and Artaxerxes II.
  • Dynasty XXVIII (404-399 BC) was the most ephemeral of all dynasties in Egypt, lasting only five years and having only one pharaoh: Amyrtaeus. He was a descendant of the XXVI dynasty who succeeded in his rebellion against the power of Artaxerxes II.
  • Dynasty XXIX (399-380 BC) moved the capital to Mendes (now Tell el-Ruba) in the Nile Delta, where its pharaohs ruled with strong power. They resumed the cult of the sacred bull (Apis) in Memphis and left a pacified and prosperous country. The pharaohs of this dynasty were Neferites I, Psamutis, Acoris (or Hacoris), and Neferites II.
  • Dynasty XXX (380-343 BC) was a native dynasty originating from the city of Sebennytos, characterized by an expansionist impulse (Judea) and commercial prosperity. The pharaohs of this dynasty were Nectanebo I, Teos (or Djedhor), and Nectanebo II.
  • Dynasty XXXI (343-332 BC) was the second of the Egyptian dynasties under Persian domination, becoming a satrapy again. It was formed by Artaxerxes III Ochus, Arses, and Darius III Codomannus.

The Hellenistic and Ptolemaic Dynasties of Egypt (332-30 BC)

In 332 BC, Egypt was under Persian domination, but also caught the attention of Alexander the Great. After conquering several cities in the Near East, he entered Egypt and was hailed as a liberator. This marked the beginning of the Hellenistic period, which saw the rise of two dynasties in Egypt:

  • The Macedonian Dynasty (332-304 BC)
    • Alexander the Great: Though his time in Egypt was brief, he took on the title of pharaoh, founded Alexandria, and visited the oracle of Amun at Siwa.
    • Philip III of Macedon: Due to his intellectual disabilities, he played a small role in this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs.
    • Alexander IV: The posthumous son of Alexander the Great, he delegated the rule of Egypt to a diadoch, Ptolemy of Lagus, who would go on to found the last great dynasty of Egypt.
  • Ptolemaic or Lagid Dynasty (304-30 BC): Although of Greek origin, the Ptolemies adopted the title of pharaohs, embracing Egyptian traditions and promoting their customs, religion, and writing. They also introduced greater openness to the Mediterranean world, choosing Alexandria as their capital. The Ptolemies made significant contributions to the architectural heritage of the country by building temples. The Lagids contributed important names to the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs, with some of them ascending to the throne and being deposed several times.
    • Ptolemy I Soter: A general of Alexander, diadoch with his son, and finally initiator of the Ptolemaic dynasty. He presented himself to foreign citizens as a basileus (Greek monarchs) and to the Egyptians as a pharaoh, often adopting their iconography.
    • Ptolemy II Philadelphus: Son of Ptolemy I, known for his melancholic spirit and diplomatic skills, he promoted local culture by founding the Library of Alexandria. He attempted to stabilize the Egyptian economy by improving agriculture and promoting trade in the Mediterranean from Alexandria, as well as in the Red Sea with new Greek settlements.
    • Ptolemy III Euergetes: He continued his father’s policies of promoting culture, increasing funding for the Library of Alexandria, and building temples, including the Temple of Edfu. He expanded his domains to Cyrene (modern-day Libya) through marriage.
    • Ptolemy IV Philopator: He was little concerned with government affairs, and his reign was marked by intrigues, including the murder of his brother. The period was also characterized by territorial losses, particularly in Thebes (Upper Egypt), which came under the control of Nubian monarchs.
    • Ptolemy V Epiphanes: He is considered by many to be the last great name in the chronology of Egyptian pharaohs. He recovered Thebes, but was unable to halt the loss of external territories. However, he is remembered for another reason: after his coronation in Memphis, the religious clergy engraved a decree about the event on the Rosetta Stone, written in Greek, demotic, and hieroglyphics, which was key to the decipherment of the latter writing system.
    • Ptolemy VI Philometor: The Ptolemaic dynasty is considered one of the most turbulent in Egyptian history, largely due to succession disputes. During the reign of Ptolemy VI Philometor, these disputes intensified, as did the influence of the courtiers. He was also subject to the Seleucid Empire but later regained ground, temporarily unifying Egypt and Syria. His ally, Rome, forced him to hand over Cyrene to his brother, Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II.
    • Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator: After the death of Ptolemy VI, he briefly co-ruled with his mother Cleopatra II, until he was killed by his uncle Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, who claimed the throne.
    • Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II: Known for his obesity, he initially ruled in conflicts with his brother Ptolemy VI and then went to Cyrene to rule with Roman intervention. Later, he returned to Egypt to murder his nephew Ptolemy VII and marry his sister, Cleopatra II, with whom he co-ruled. However, he also married Cleopatra III, his wife’s daughter and his brother’s daughter. These events led to a civil war that he managed to survive and remain on the throne.
    • Ptolemy IX Soter: Son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III, he ruled in three separate periods, alternating with his brother Ptolemy X, illustrating the instability of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
    • Ptolemy X Alexander I: Son of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III, he ruled twice, alternating with his brother Ptolemy IX. He formalized a costly aid agreement with Rome.
    • Berenice III: Daughter of Ptolemy IX, she became the consort of Ptolemy X and briefly ruled for a few months after his death. However, she was forced to marry her stepson, Ptolemy XI, who murdered her soon after the marriage.
    • Ptolemy XI Alexander II: Son of Ptolemy X, he was part of the Egyptian pharaoh chronology but only ruled for a few days. After he killed his wife Berenice III, the people of Alexandria revolted and overthrew him from the throne.
    • Ptolemy XII Neo-Dionysus Auletes: He was the son of Ptolemy IX and an unknown mother. He was proclaimed pharaoh by the people of Alexandria after deposing Ptolemy XI. However, he was not a capable ruler, spending most of his time on music and neglecting government affairs. He was plagued by legitimacy issues and faced popular uprisings. To secure his position, he sought the support of Rome, which led to unfavorable agreements for Egypt. During his absence, his daughter Berenice IV acted as regent and later ascended to the throne. But upon his return, with the aid of a Roman army led by Mark Antony, he assassinated Berenice IV and regained power.
    • Berenice IV: She was the daughter of Ptolemy XII and acted as regent during her father’s absence. When Ptolemy XII returned to Egypt with a Roman army, Berenice IV was assassinated by her father, who reinstalled himself on the throne.
    • Cleopatra VII Philopator: was the daughter of Ptolemy XII and was named as his successor, along with her brother Ptolemy XIII, with whom she was also married in a political alliance between siblings, a common practice in the Ptolemaic dynasty. She was known for her cultural accomplishments and was the first ruler of the dynasty to speak the local language, as well as many others. However, she is perhaps most famous for her marriages to the Roman leaders Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, and for her schemes to maintain her power. Cleopatra had a tumultuous relationship with her brother, which led to a civil war. Julius Caesar intervened on Cleopatra’s side during the second Roman civil war, defeating Ptolemy XIII in the Battle of the Nile. Julius Caesar then named Cleopatra and her younger brother Ptolemy XIV as co-regents. After Julius Caesar’s assassination in Rome, Cleopatra had Ptolemy XIV killed and began a relationship with Mark Antony, with whom she had two children. The alliance between Cleopatra and Mark Antony ultimately led to a conflict with Octavian (later Caesar Augustus) for control of Rome. This culminated in the Battle of Actium, which resulted in the defeat of Cleopatra and Mark Antony. Following their defeat, Cleopatra and Mark Antony committed suicide, marking the end of the Ptolemaic dynasty. Cleopatra’s reign was marked by economic decisions aimed at combating periods of famine and the construction of various temples, including those dedicated to Egyptian and Greek deities, as well as to Judaism. She also oversaw the construction of the Caesarion of Alexandria, a temple dedicated to the worship of her partner (it is unclear whether Julius Caesar or Mark Antony). Cleopatra remains one of the most written-about rulers in Egyptian history.
    • Ptolemy XIII, the brother of Cleopatra VII and son of Ptolemy XII, became co-regent of Egypt with his sister, but they soon fell into a power struggle. During this time, Julius Caesar arrived in Egypt during the second Roman civil war, and he supported Cleopatra. Ptolemy XIII challenged Julius Caesar, leading to his defeat in the Battle of the Nile and subsequent death.
    • Ptolemy XIV, the younger brother of Cleopatra VII, was made co-regent of Egypt by Julius Caesar, but upon his death, Cleopatra ordered his assassination to ensure her son with Julius Caesar, Caesarion, would succeed her.
    • Ptolemy XV Caesarion: the son of Cleopatra VII and Julius Caesar (paternity disputed), was nominally the last pharaoh of Egypt as designated by his mother, although he did not hold effective power. After the suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, he was killed in Alexandria on the orders of Octavian Augustus.


Following the Battle of Actium, Egypt became a Roman province governed by a prefect under the authority of the Roman emperor, and dynasties in Egypt could no longer exist. Thus, no new names could be added to this chronology of Egyptian pharaohs. However, some Roman emperors continued to show fascination for Egyptian civilization, and various prefects built temples in the region.

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